Sunday, June 28, 2020

Ethical Decision Making Research Paper - 825 Words

Ethical Decision Making (Research Paper Sample) Content: Name:Instructor:Course:Date:Ethical Decision MakingEthical Decision Making refers to an analysis and the consequent action on an issue causing moral dilemma with regard to individual and cultural values. It also refers to the process of making choices that are beneficial to all parties involved. Quite often, people choose to do what is ethical as opposed to legal. However, some ethical decisions can lead to legal action according to an organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s legal policy CITATION Arc91 \l 1033 (Carroll). Within organizations and societies, sanctions are often imposed on people who fail to observe ethical standards; the respective laws may dictate the penalty for those found guilty of unethical behaviors. Almost all unethical behaviors are illegal CITATION OFa05 \l 1033 (Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Fallon and Butterfield).Recent interest in moral behavior and ethics in business mostly comes from attempts by scholars, practitioners and educators, and the public to determine what influences the behavior of executives. Many people choose to view these behavior cases from the viewpoint of ethics; the behavior of the executives is viewed as unethical. They are usually dismissed as unethical or immoral people. In addition, the solution is superior moral education in trade and other business programs. There are suggestions from some quarters that todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s business programs do not facilitate studentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ moral development of students and sometimes leave make students less moral than they enrolled for the programs CITATION OFa05 \l 1033 (Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Fallon and Butterfield).There is a difference between moral decision making and amoral decision making CITATION Arc91 \l 1033 (Carroll). People can act both ethically and unethically. Most people argue that the social scientist should not decide what people should do with regard to ethical or unethical behavior CITATION OFa05 \l 1033 (Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Fallon and Butterfield). However, they generally acknow ledge the significance of identifying criteria by which decisions are made. It is hard to define ethical behavior; there are many definitions, but most rely on using some standard of ethical actions from which individualà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s behavior can be judged CITATION Sco93 \l 1033 (Vitell, Nwachukwu and Barnes). All standards are subjective and cultural in nature; they are also subject to intensive debate.Moral behavior refers to acts aimed at producing kind and/or fair outcomes; it is comparable to prosocial behavior. Most individuals can identify behavior as ethical if goal identification is the source of motivation, that is, behavior can be labeled moral if it leads to positive outcome for others. Moral motivation is founded on empathy, moral affiliations, and principles CITATION Sco93 \l 1033 (Vitell, Nwachukwu and Barnes). If people accept the notion that moral behavior has an element of helping others (as opposed to egoistic motives), then there is need to examine the relevant other. An ethical decision can be referred to as decision that is acceptable in society, both morally and legally CITATION OFa05 \l 1033 (Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Fallon and Butterfield). Consequently, this definition creates a social standard of behavior based on cultural, community or organizational standard as opposed to an absolute standard. This creates confusion on what stand to use when one standard is being used in over-lapping reference groups CITATION Arc91 \l 1033 (Carroll).Personally, a functional conceptualization of ethics should create a distinction between legal and ethical behavior. These two are among the numerous social control mechanisms used to curb unwanted social behavior. Additionally, laws and ethical standards often coincide, supplement, strengthen and even conflict with one another.In my final year in high school, the principal was involved in a cheating case that denied me the first position in my Midyear examinations. It involved a student named Ashton, a son of th e schoolà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s principal, the principal himself and a physics teacher who altered Ashtonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s Physicà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s grade. The Physics teacher was a close friend of the principal. The matter was known around the schoolà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s premises and tainted a negative image of the administration. The principal defended the school policy feverishly, arguing that teaching was not allowed in the school. However, a...

Monday, May 25, 2020

Personality Reflection - 976 Words

Delawrence Reed Psy/250 Version 6 Professor Wilkerson Personality Reflection Personality cares for the important, strong measures of a human being’s psychological vitality. Traits relates to an individual being merry or depressed, active or care less, brilliant or ignorant. There are many different definitions about personality. Most definitions are on mental system which is a cluster of mental pieces implicating purposes, feelings, and thinking patterns. The meanings alternate a little as to what those pieces may be, it comes to the concept that traits have patterns or worldwide operation mental systems. Let’s read a few of systems: Personality is the entire mental organization of a human being at any stage of his†¦show more content†¦Personally, I have to disagree with some of the predictions made by these tests. Some of the predictions made by these tests I feel are not accurate. An example would be that I scored high in the extravert section, but I do not feel like I would enjoy an interactive job with many people. As stated abov e I scored high on the self-monitoring test but I really do not do whatever it takes to get positive reactions from people. Basically, I do not think that by answering a series of question determined and person personality. Why you ask, the word change. Now, Well-designed and thoroughly tested personality assessments afford an extra element of information in the decision-making process that other forms of assessment are unable to offer. Specifically, when used in conjunction with a formal job-analysis, personality assessments become legally-defensible methods of selection in countries where unsuccessful candidates are able to appeal such decisions. Not all personality assessments are the same of course and the degree of validity afforded by an instrument will vary. Before investing in tests, it is important to understand the purpose for which the test was designed and in which different populations it has been tested. There are a huge number of free personality tests available on the internet and whilst these may be fun to complete, they usually are unsuitable in work situationsShow MoreRelatedPersonality Reflection649 Words   |  3 PagesPersonality Reflection Paper Ronald Aliangan PSY/250 September 13th, 2014 My personality can be defined as an amiable person that really cares about others. I am outgoing, sensitive, emotional, and direct. I have been known to put other people’s needs in front of my own. I am not usually short on things to say. Also I love being around friends and family, but also really love to have my alone time. I have two older sisters that ironically have very different personalitiesRead MorePersonality Reflection791 Words   |  4 PagesPersonality Reflection PSY/250 Personality Reflection In this Personality Reflection, I will define personality and define personal features of my own personality structures. Personality is what defines our characteristics as a human being. Individuals have different personality traits that make up our behavioral characteristics, which may include how we think or react. Some characteristics are inherited in our genes. For example, I have a mannerism of always chewing my tongue ever since IRead MorePersonality Reflection1076 Words   |  5 PagesPersonality Reflection Katie Smit PSY/250 August 20,2011 Dianne Hinz Personality Reflection Every individual has a different idea and thought about self and how self makes up their entire being. Self is made of the human’s own biology his or her cognitive process and perception of oneself compared to others. This paper is going to look at the concept of self and how this relates to real-life; situations affect a person’s self-efficacy and esteem. Personalities are made up of the characteristicRead MorePersonality Reflection Paper939 Words   |  4 PagesPersonality Reflection Paper Debbie Cooper PSY/250 July 30, 2012 AnneySnyder Personality Reflection Paper The following will reflect this researchers understanding and reflection on personality, how it defines one, what it means, and if one’s personality changes to fit certain situations. At the end this researcher may have a better insight into herself as well as the personalities of others. This insight can help her in her future endeavors. Personality I would define personality asRead MorePersonality Reflection Essay694 Words   |  3 PagesPersonality reflection Melody Jones PSY/250 April 14, 2011 Murray Johnson What is a personality? A personality is a reflection of a person identity of a human being but we don’t share the same type of personality. There are so many different type of personality in the world some people have outgoing, shy, crazy, and settle personality. There are some people where there culture and surrounding shape their personality traits. In my culture and surrounding it has help me shape my personalityRead MoreReflection Paper On Personality1427 Words   |  6 PagesFor this paper, I wanted to get an analytical point of view on what my personality is. To do this, I took two personality tests from the Similar Minds website. The first one I took was the Big 45 Test. That personality test consisted of 225 questions that gave me the answer range from ‘very inaccurate’ to ‘very accurate’. My results were nearly similar in percentage; for Extroversion I got 59%, Accommodation is 67%, Orderliness is 59%, Emotional Stability is 51%, and Open-m indedness is 73%. WhatRead MorePersonality Reflection Paper821 Words   |  4 Pagesthe Jungian Typology Test confirmed my introvert personality, along with even more relevant information regarding other aspects of my personality. I literally am reading the information you (Professor) posted in my discussion post about INTJ’s in the workplace and clapping aloud in amazement. I have always been captivated by astronomy, I absolutely love watching documentaries on the universe, dark/matter, black holes, etc. Seeing that my personality is the same as inspiring people like Stephen HawkingRead MoreReflection Paper On Personality2330 Words   |  10 PagesPersonality is a big part of who we are. Each personality is different. They all very in their strengths and shortcomings. Whatever type of personality a person may have, it is going to affect every aspect of their life. This is very true when it comes to their chosen career path. Your place of employment is one of the only pl aces as an adult, that you can’t control who you interact with. It is great to understand how your personality can shape your career path, your leadership style, and how youRead MorePersonality Profile Reflection Paper1336 Words   |  6 Pagestests are designed to inform us of our personality, and advantages and disadvantages that may come with it. The goal is to characterize patterns of behavior, emotions, and thoughts that a person has carried throughout their lifetime. Understanding these patterns of yourself and of those around you is beneficial for group dynamics. The more you know and understand your personality the better you will be able to see how others view and react to you. Personality assessments can help us locate and changeRead MorePersonality Profile Reflection Paper1743 Words   |  7 Pagesperformance in the workplace. To provide a personal perspective of personality characteristics, the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) assessment was used to m easure aspects of my personality and how these traits relate to working with others and life within an organization. Key observations provide specific insight into how these are applied to workplace behavior and interactions with others. Personal self-reflection related to workplace behavior is offered, including lessons learned

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Does Money Buy Happiness Essay - 1057 Words

In life, we all (mostly) strive for well-being and happiness. To be happy usually means to be content with oneself. So, what exactly determines happiness? Does one specifically choose to be happy? Or do other factors come into play, whether they may be external or internal? No doubt, no chart exists that determines ones happiness. Despite this, there are indeed other factors that come about. Those factors may include but are not limited to: self-choices and luck, life expectations, and money. For the most part, however, it is expected that happy people do in fact choose to be happy even in life’s dullest moments. Money is required for just about everything: higher education, housing, transportation†¦ the list is never-ending. The question â€Å"Does money buy happiness?† always arises when discussing the correlation between money and happiness. Therefore, it is no secret that money plays a vital role in life; many strive to make as much money to live as comfortable as possible. Even though money does play a crucial role – it is not a true indicator of happiness. For example, in the 1960’s, Japan was a rather deprived nation with little resources. Though, close to the 1990’s Japan acquired more wealth, and with that the average income for a Japanese person rose as well. Even though the average Japanese person had more wealth, studies show that happiness levels in the typical Japanese person were exceptionally similar when comparing the two time periods (Frank, R.H., 2005).Show MoreRelatedDoes Money Buy Happiness? Essay examples3941 Words   |  16 PagesDoes Money Buy Happiness? Donald Tolbert John Brown University Executive Summary The subject of this paper is the age-old question, â€Å"Does Money Buy Happiness†. On the surface, this question appears to be an easy one. Happiness however, is a subjective item. To better answer this, several points must be analyzed such as, â€Å"What is happiness?†, â€Å"How is it measured?† etc. To better streamline this process, a research question was developed: * â€Å"Does an increase in personal income causeRead MoreRichard Cory Summary : Money Does Not Buy Happiness1499 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Richard Cory†: Money Does Not Buy Happiness Edwin Arlington Robinson explores the psychology of the way that society perceives wealth as being equal to happiness in his poem â€Å"Richard Cory†. There are plenty of clichà ©s that describe this psychology—from â€Å"keeping up with the Joneses,† to â€Å"the grass is always greener on the other side.† Society is obsessed with wealth. This is true especially when one is poor. There is a class divide, based on income, that keeps poor people from experiencing whatRead MoreMoney Can Buy Happiness : Happiness1653 Words   |  7 PagesMoney Can Buy Happiness Happiness, has long been an estate that huge numbers of individuals endeavor to create a path, that seeks to find it. Extensive research, surprisingly enough, does not have definitive answers on the concept of what makes one happy. As a matter of fact; there are as many attempts to define happiness, as there are the many scholars, theologians, psychologist and philosophers, curious enough to research it. Many ¬Ã‚ ¬; are unsuccessful in comparison to the ready definition ofRead MoreCan Money Buy Happiness?1324 Words   |  6 PagesCan money buy happiness? It’s a philosophical question that has been discussed for centuries and there is no simple answer. For example, Graham Hill in â€Å"Living with Less. A Lot Less† gives his input on this highly debated topic through a multitude of short anecdotes. She asked herself not if â€Å"Money can buy happiness,† but if money could â€Å"help buy happiness† (Rubin 293). She also brings up the idea of modest sp lurging and spending out as methods of using money to help one buy happiness. Rubin describesRead MoreMoney and Happiness1743 Words   |  7 PagesCan Money Buy Happiness In todays materialistic world, the phrase that ‘money cant buy happiness is tending to be proved hence otherwise. Social research and surveys have shown results based on an individuals income, health and the political scenario which is dominant in his or her region. It is quite obvious that the gap between the privileged and the not so is growing into a great divide giving rise to different class and status, thus defining ones social circle. It should therefore be understoodRead MoreMoney Can Buy You Happiness936 Words   |  4 PagesMany people say that money cant buy you happiness, well I don’t find that to be true. Having a large amount of money has become a dream in many peoples lives. Although money can buy you thing you want to make you happy, happiness is only bought by the people you surround your self with. Many people are convinced that money can buy a person happiness, however most happiness comes from families and friends. Money can buy you happiness because , money can buy you security, stress free, healthcare, andRead MoreCan Money Buy Happiness?1637 Words   |  7 Pages Does Happiness Come With A Price? Malcom Williams Can Money Buy Happiness? Abstract In this paper, I argue and show various sources addressing the correlations between money and happiness through subjects such as pro-social spending, materialism, the pursuit of spending on others, and the effects of homelessness on physical and mental health. Much of the time, cash can have a negative impact on both, particularly the. Now and again, in any case, cash may positively affect satisfactionRead MoreMoney Can Buy Happiness945 Words   |  4 PagesCan money buy you happiness? It is a classical debate, sparked by the left-wing communists and religious leaders who suggest that a person can live a full life without the pursuit of money, and instead one must look to a more spiritual existence above the material desires. It is perhaps conceivable in a century gone by where people grew all their food and believed in witches, that a human could forge a fulfilling existence without the need of money to satisfy our desires. However in today’s societyRead MoreMoney Is Not Abl e For Buy Happiness933 Words   |  4 Pages There are various instances where the novel Sister Carrie presents the idea that money is not able to buy happiness. Carrie, the protagonist of the novel, attempts to use money to create happiness in her life, but throughout her journey she finally starts to realize that her happiness cannot be constantly associated with wealth. This theme is supported through the actions and words of the protagonist. The protagonist, Carrie, is the main character in the story. Many specific lines in the novel indicateRead MoreEssay on Can Money Buy Happiness?1721 Words   |  7 PagesJanuary  24,  2015   Does  Money  Really  Bring  Happiness?      John  Locke  once  stated  that  all  men  have  the  right  to  life,  liberty,  and  property.  The   author  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  Benjamin  Franklin,  changed  this  statement  to  the   right  to  life,  liberty,  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness.  People  have  the  constitutional  right  to  be   joyful  and  therefore  strive  for  it,  but  what  is  it  that  really  brings  people  glee?  Many  people   believe  that  the  answer  to  this  question  is  simply  money.  They  think  that  the  more  money  they

Friday, May 15, 2020

Helping The Homeless Population With Survival Kits

Responsible leaders take seriously the need of the people they provide assistance to. During supervision, while working with the homeless in seeking housing resources, there has been other needs that the people requested during their visits to the office such as showering or washing their clothes. In doing so, they also needed basic toiletries and clothing especially during the winter months, they need warm clothing. However, working in an organization with limited funds and with it’s current status of state funding budget cuts, creates a larger barrier in the need to provide necessary items for those that are experiencing homelessness. As the barriers were presented, it was discovered that the organization has a need to request donations for the purpose of providing assistance to the homeless population with survival kits to become proactive for the people’s health and wellness. However, some issues with requesting donations were presented. But a goal was set to commit to the cause. The initial barrier as an employee of a non-profit organization, there is no support from the hierarchy leadership team, as that the role of the business to seek donations for the business itself for all that receive services beyond the homeless program. In sharing with the Chief Administrator Officer, it was approved to create the drive under the organization’s 50(c)3 and tax exempt number. However, all connections of donations must be directed to the Marketing Department. The MarketingShow MoreRelatedKelsey Bradley. Kendra Gallos. English Iii Honors. 6 April1619 Words   |  7 Pageslinger from other homeless people sleeping close by is nauseating but soon goes away because it becomes a way of life. Hunger has set in and begging people for food is the only option. People in society tend to label the homeless as alcoholics or drug abusers. The homeless people who choose to do such things set a bad example for homeless individuals who truly need help. Homelessness affects people of all ages, races, and backgrounds and most people in society judge the homeless unfairly becauseRead MoreThe Homeless Are Homeless : A Middle Class Lifestyle After Marriage1654 Words   |  7 Pagesmany people can end up homeless from children, to adults, and even veterans. According to Doran, fifteen percent of America’s homeless are chronically homeless, which means the person has been homeless continuously for a year or more or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years (Doran). The reason there are so many homeless people now in the country is because of a very punitive and moralistic societal value we have about people who are homeless and in desperate need.Read More Homeless Children and the Educational System Essay2484 Words   |  10 PagesHomeless Children and the Educational System Many people still think of homeless transients as alcoholics and/or mentally disabled. The truth is, the current homeless population consists of runaway adolescents, single adult males or females, battered women and over one million homeless families with children – typically headed by a female parent. To be homeless means that one’s primary residence is a public or private shelter, emergency housing, hotel, motel, living with family or friendsRead MoreAccidental Death, Domestic Violence, And Alcoholism3641 Words   |  15 PagesAct and the marketplace health insurance enrollment process for Native American and Alaska Natives. Also the Native Language Preservation and Maintenance program provides opportunities to assess, plan, develop and implement projects to ensure the survival and continuing vitality of native languages,† ( Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) â€Å"administers programs which include Medicare, Medicaid, the Children’s Health InsuranceRead More Volunteerism and Community Service in America Today Essay4261 Words   |  18 PagesTheatre and the World Stage Growing up in central Kansas, home of Dorothy and land of tornadoes, I had many opportunities to help victims of disaster. My family often helped rebuild tornado-destroyed homes, carried meals and supplies to the newly homeless, and worked to repair the stricken community. This was my earliest impression of relief and development. Those who could helped those in need. Simple as that. But development is not simple. It is not a matter of giver and receiver, acting outRead MoreMarketing Principle Quiz20161 Words   |  81 PagesFeedback: | Jacques Torres Chocolate has a market orientation. | | | | |   Ã‚  Question 5 | 1 out of 1 points    | | What is the fundamental objective of most businesses? | | | | | Selected Answer: |   a.   survival, profits, and growth | Correct Answer: |   a.   survival, profits, and growth | Feedback: | The use of marketing allows businesses to achieve this objective. | | | | |   Ã‚  Question 6 | 1 out of 1 points    | | Which of the following measures would be the bestRead MoreAcca F5111177 Words   |  445 Pages....... iv Topic index ..................................................................................................................................................................... vii Using your BPP Learning Media Practice and Revision Kit .......................................................... ix Passing F5 Revising F5 ..................................................................................................................................................................Read More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 PagesEstimation Using a Single Sample 9.1 Point Estimation 476 475 9.2 Large-Sample Conï ¬ dence Interval for a Population Proportion 482 9.3 Conï ¬ dence Interval for a Population Mean 495 x ââ€"   Contents 9.4 Interpreting and Communicating the Results of Statistical Analyses 508 Activity 9.1 Getting a Feel for Conï ¬ dence Level 514 Activity 9.2 An Alternative Conï ¬ dence Interval for a Population Proportion 515 Activity 9.3 Verifying Signatures on a Recall Petition 516 Activity 9.4 A Meaningful ParagraphRead More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words   |  190 Pagesto voice ames.. sage, and this author clearly captures the hearts and minds of her readers. 19 AVin bansal This past summer, the VP and the only other associate on my team left Summit. The associate, my mentor, had been instrumental in helping me build financial and sales abilities in sourcing new oppor.. tunities..Without his and the VPs support, I knew that I would be called upon to step up and that my leadership would be tested in new and unforeseen ways. This quickly proved to beRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pageseconomic conditions in varying countries. Nonetheless, the following skills are essential to most contemporary managers: †¢ Political Skills. Libraries and information agencies are intensely political organizations, and awareness of this is vital to survival in today’s climate. Managers need to create a vision and inspire others to believe in that vision. They must create a climate conducive to strategic thinking and action. Organizations are often hotly and intensely political, both internally and in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender Is A Matter Of Culture Essay - 1870 Words

What is Gender? According to the Ann Oakley (1972), â€Å"Gender is a matter of Culture, it refers the classification of men and women into masculine and feminine.’’ What is the role of men, women and Transgender in the society? Historically, the role of men is treated as a head of the household, bread winner of the family and respectable persons in the society. And the women have been given the role of being the caretaker of the household and the children. This position has several times been abused and reduced to a mere position of on who can be abused with surreal amounts of work, at the same time, could be given the least of resources and opportunities. The transgender population was always treated as an isolated group, with minimum opportunities and even lesser respect and dignity. Occupation and Gender: According to the ILO 3.0 Billion people were employed around the world in 2008, in this 1.2 billion (40.4%) were women. In this employment pattern 61% of people working in the agricultural field and other areas, 29% in middle income countries and 4% rich countries. The pattern of employment in working areas of men, women and transgender is varies from one country to another. Mostly in developing countries the working population of men are high as compare to the group of women and transgender, but if we see in developed countries it is different as in developing countries. But still the majority of working population is higher in men than the women and transgender. GENDERShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Advertisements On Children And Children900 Words   |  4 Pagesadvertisement is trying to prove that gender doesn’t matter. Men have the same responsibilities as women. According to certain theory children and teenagers learn about gender roles through actual experience, but also through how they see others act. Teenagers and children don’t know how to act right way in some situations, so they act as how they saw others act and what they saw on Advertisements or on television. Parents play a big role in how children view their own gender. Advertisements has two impactRead MoreGender Analysis : Gender And Gender857 Words   |  4 Pages1. Gender performance is what we do to show how we identify ourselves when it comes to gender. As it says in the second slide of the Chapter three PowerPoint, gender isn’t what we do, it’s who we are, and what we become. If you are a guy, you normally dress like a man. Like the example from class you don’t usually see a man wearing a skirt when he attends class or goes to work. This is changes culturally because not all cultures see gender the same way that our culture does. Our culture usually onlyRead MoreGender, Gender And Sex Matters904 Words   |  4 PagesGender and Sex Matters This class is all really interesting for me, except the two features I talked above, all the other topics are just too attractive and applaud me. The gender problems totally right, and I believe this happens in every country. When I translated â€Å"Sex† and â€Å"Gender† in the dictionary, it gives us the same meaning: male and female. Thus I ‘m really surprised when I found they have different meanings in class! As referred to by Allen, Sex is a biological classification while genderRead MoreNight to his day858 Words   |  4 PagesConstruction of Gender By Judith Lorber Afterreading Judith Lorber article† Night to his day† the social construction of gender, I realized that we have been â€Å"doing gender† every day without us noticing. These â€Å"doing gender†activities have implement into our brain through life experience, parents and social life. In her article, she â€Å"denaturalized† gender into three different categories: â€Å"individual; society; and gender†. First of all, she talks about how we determine gender for each individualRead MoreBeing Bilingual Consist Of Two Cultures And Two Languages,1370 Words   |  6 PagesBeing bilingual consist of two cultures and two languages, it builds into self identity. Spanish and English in America is seen as an advantage, and in Mexico it is seen as unique and educated. Due to past experience as a child and now as a young adult, I have seen both the disadvantages and advantages of being bilingual in the United States. Bilingual children in America are usually children of Mexican immigrants who learn no perfect Spanish, what they know is taught by their (most likely) uneducatedRead MoreMary Shelly s Frankenstein And The Hidden Self1662 Words   |  7 Pagesimportant to obtain knowledge no matter the gender or sexuality of a person or thing. Another great text for example can be Joanna Russ’ how to write like a Women, as it to shows the great importance of knowledge as well. Furthermore, gender is widely seen as what one is born like, but I see it as the way someone identifies themselves as, so no matter the gender or sexuality of one’s person, knowledge will always have the same meaning of learning power no matter who it is addressed to. KnowledgeRead MoreGender Is A Social Construct Rather Than Of Biological Origin1732 Words   |  7 Pages Gender is a social construct which is regarded as a sociolinguistic variable that affects language use in society. This contributed to characterizing many different aspects of life that were thought to be understood to be of social construct rather than of biological origin. Language as a crucial communication tool, not only reflects the reality of the society, but also has various functions to strengthen and maintain social existence. Males and females use different ways of thinking, processingRead MoreGender Roles in Moso806 Words   |  3 Pages are called uncle. A family properties are inherited through the female line. Men seem to have less authority in dealing with family matters. That is why Moso has been depicted as â€Å"a kingdom of women†. This essay will try to argue that women are not superior to men in Moso. The essay will first delve into the gender roles, which refers to roles assigned by culture to the biological differentiation of the sexes, performed in fam ily and economic aspects, followed by some major restrictions imposedRead MoreWhat Are Gender Roles?1123 Words   |  5 PagesSummer Evans Essay 4 Prof. LaTour Eng. 101 Specific Gender Roles What are gender roles? Gender roles are those that are portrayed by a certain gender identity. In other words, a male and/or female should act and dress as if their gender is supposed to as seen by society. Guys will wear shorts and a T-shirt while girls will wear dresses and skirts; that is just how society sees an individual. Men and women’s gender roles reflect on what others will think in today’s society. Society sees men andRead Moreâ€Å"Transsexual and Transgender Policies in Sport†, Essay931 Words   |  4 PagesSport†, the vast variety of genders that make up our society today including transsexuals and transgender are still not accepted into the world of sports due to anxieties from large sporting organizations. In our culture, there is a ‘binary structure’ which separates male from female. When a person is transsexual or transgender, the binary structure becomes challenged. There are so many exceptions to the binary structure, that it becomes nearly impossible to universalize â€Å"gender inclusive policies†. These

How Ebay Is An American Multinational Corporation And E...

Overview of the company: eBay is an American multinational corporation and e-commerce company, that provides consumer-to-consumer sale-services through the Internet. eBay was initially founded as an auction web by a computer programmer called Pierre Omidyar, and during the dot-com bubble it manage to prevail and it ended up being a notable success story. In September 1997, the company officially changed its name to eBay and in 1998 it went public. Today it is a multibillion-dollar business with operations localized in over 30 countries (Global Trade, 1995-2016). There are millions of items available on eBay, from used cars to collectible items such as coin memorabilia. The firm empowers exchange on local, national and global business sectors around the globe. Unlike Amazon, which threatened the existence of local retailers, eBay facilitates local individual retailers/mom-and-pop stores/retail chains and offered them a platform to sell their merchandise with the advantage of same-hour delivery. The Business Model eBay is a meeting place where people come to shop, sell, buy, and collect items of their choice through a fixed price storefront or through auction. The website offers the convenience of buying and selling from the comfort of the users home. In March 2013, eBay released a study that suggested that e-commerce experienced 60% less trade friction than traditional avenues of international trade and reduced the negative effect of trade costs. Operation strategyShow MoreRelatedThe Strategy And Priorities Of The Product Service942 Words   |  4 Pagesthese three different service providers with the help of â€Å"COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES BY KRAJEWSKI RITZMAN† and â€Å"ORDER WINNING CRITERIA BY T. HILL† . Each and every corporate objectives and marketing strategies are taken into deliberation to comprehend how the services win orders in the market place, by taking source from the particular provider’s promotional information and reviews. Every service developers comes up with disparate new ideas to provide best service quality to the costumers. Some of theRead MoreTaking a Look at eBay Inc.978 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction As the majority of us know, eBay Inc. is an American based (Headquarters: San Jose, California) multinational corporation that is dominant on the internet for consumer-to-consumer product or goods sales. eBay Inc. was founded in the year of 1995 as a personal project by its founder cum creator, Pierre Omidyar, for his personal goal of assisting his wife’s personal hobby of collecting Pez dispensers. However, in 1998 the company went public, and since then it’s President and CEO hasRead MoreDesigning An E Commerce Solution Evaluation Essay1624 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Types of E-commerce†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. E-commerce in use by organisations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦... Financial implications†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Designing an e-commerce solution†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Evaluation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Introduction. Many businesses have shown that after implementing an e-commerce system into their companies, sales have increased immenselyRead MoreAnalysis of Ebay China’s Failure and Suggestions to Ebay’s Return Strategy from the Perspective of Cross-Cultural Conflicts7600 Words   |  31 PagesAnalysis of eBay China’s Failure and Suggestions to eBay’s Return Strategy from the Perspective of Cross-cultural Conflicts 1. Introduction Along with the development of global economy, no one is unfamiliar with the word of globalization, and the world is filled with multinational-corporations. 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Strategic Management Issues in Woolworths Company- myassignmenthelp

Question: Writeabout theStrategic Management Issues in Woolworths Company forIGA. Answer: Problem Statement The retail industry of Australia has only a few large retailers operating as supermarket stores including Woolsworth, ALDI, Coles group, IGA, Foodworks, Macro Wholefoods, and SPAR. However, there is large number of small retailers operating in the country. These retailers give a huge variety of choices of groceries and food items to customers and the retail industry as a whole contribute over 4% to the GDP of Australia. Woolworths is the largest retailer in Australia but with increasing growth of the supermarket, the retailer is facing strong competition from its major rivals. The margins of most retailers in the market are in similar range(Bluschke, 2016). Te only differentiation that these stores can create for consumers are service delivery and retail efficiency. To sustain and build a long term competitive advantage, Woolworths needs to enhance its service efficiency through innovation. If the company can use technological innovation to bring system excellence, service efficienci es can be improved in the stores. Lean principles focus on building efficiencies in the organization and can be used for addressing retail challenges. This research would explore various challenges that are faced by the retailer Woolworths and identify opportunities for making changes through lean practices such that efficiency of the retail processes can be improved(Ambernathy, Dunlop, Hammond, Weil, 2000). Research Aim and Objectives The aim of this research is to explore the strategic challenges faced by Woolworths and identification of opportunities for improvement through lean practices. TO achieve this aim, the following objectives have to be achieved: To explore strategic management challenges faced by Woolworths Company To analyse the challenges to identify opportunities for improvement To explore the opportunities to apply lean practices to eliminate wastes and increase efficiencies Application of lean principles to retail scenario for identifying opportunities for improvement in efficiencies Conceptual Framework A number of studies have been conducted to study the ways retail organizations develop, grow and succeed. Several theories have been developed with these studies that include cyclical theories, conflict theories and environmental theories. Cyclical theories have identified common retail development patterns. Wheel of retailing is one of the cyclical theories which explain the evolution of retail in three phases including entry into retail business with lower prices and margins, emerging into a retailer with high end prices and services followed by competition from new retailers(Oracle, 2015). The theory uses the concept of opportunistic buying, undercutting the existing players and establishing self retail in the market. At the end of the cycle, retailers upgrade their stores or add new product lines with increased prices that enable retailers to work with higher margins(Diamond, 2004). For such a growth path to sustain, strong leadership is needed in an organization as it grows as r etailer expands through enhancements in their merchandize quality and quantity. With these advances, the cost of operations also increases and thus, makes way for the entry of new low cost retailers in the market. Retail life cycles which is another model for studying retail growth among cyclical theories identifies four stages of retail store development including innovation, growth, maturity, and decline that all the organizations go through in its life span(Nielsen , 2013). The time span of each of this phase can vary. In the stage of innovation, investments are high and profits are less while are growth stage, retailer begins to expand along with others in competition till a point maturity is reached in the market and the industry starts t get saturated which is followed by a decline. At this point, innovation is used to revive the market. At this point retailers look for expanding into new markets that have not been explored by the retailer(Dydacomp, 2014). Retail Accordion is another age old cyclical theory in retailing which recognizes the tendency of tailers to alternate between specialization and diversification forming a cyclical pattern of growth and development(Stauss Seidel, 2012). A retailer may be with one niche specialization and then diversify into new products and services. For instance, Amazon started as a book store but soon ventured into other products like apparels and electronics. After establishing itself as a consumer goods retailer, Amazon then diversified into live streaming of videos and recently, it has also started its grocery division(KPMG, 2015). Environmental theories of retail evolution explore the interplay between the internal and external environment of an organization. External environment is composed of political, cultural, demographic, legal, technological and economic aspects. Depending on the variation sin the environment, retail industry matures or goes through a process of innovation which changes the environment giving way to new opportunities(Motorola Solutions, Inc., 2013). Evolution theory which is an environmental theory believes in the process of survival and natural selection and states the organizations adapt to the changing environment to sustain the markets. With change in the environmental factors like political, legal, economic, technological and social paradigms, structures of retail also change. Institutional theory on the other hand identifies organization as a part of its environment and thus, is believed to be interdependent with the environment. As per this theory, the cultural and economic norms of the environment are reflected in the decisions of a retail organization(IBSCDC, 2009). These norms can exist both at task and institutional levels. At task level, norms are linked to performance while at the institutional level; actions are constrained by culture or morals. For example, decisions about merchandize assortment and inventory management are governed by task related norms while promotional activities are governed by institutional n orms such as community practices(Frei Harker, 2000). Conflict theory addresses the concerns of an organization that is newly innovation and in the process; it challenges the status quo which requires a major shift in the market as well as in the organizational culture. A continuous shift happens between actions; reaction and synthesis as the retail come with a competitive advantage as an action and then takes actions that would reduce the competitive advantage which is a reaction(IBM, 2010). This reaction eventually results into modification in the operating methods of the organization. A continual adaptation follows along resulting into synthesis and evolution of innovative formats that establish themselves over time. The theory identifies four stages of innovation in a retail organization that include giving shock to market, giving defensive retreats, acknowledgements, and adaptations. Initially, a retailer is hostile to the threats faced in the industry but as soon as it moves to the stage of innovation, the process advances to the final phase of success(Gupta Kumar, 2014). Research Methodology Research Approach This research involves examination of the strategic challenges that are faced by Woolworths Company such that specific solutions can be come up with for resolving those challenges. This requires a general investigation of the challenges faced by the organization in depth such that specific areas that present the scope for improvement can be identified. As the research needs to go from the exploration of general issues to identification of specific solutions, a deductive reasoning would make a suitable approach for this research. Research Philosophy Choice of a research methodology largely depends on how the knowledge is perceived and believes in its existence. Here, an understanding of epistemology that identifies ways people think about truth and ontology that describes the way things are would be useful for identification of an appropriate methodology. Objectivists believe in existence of truth that can be proven by facts while interpretivists believe in existence of collective interpretations that emerge from believes of different people that can be brought together to explain a phenomenon. In the current case, there is an existence of a truth which can be explained by observing the patterns of retail data such that research can find out what realities exist, what challenges are faced and how these can be tackled. Thus, a positivist approach to research would be taken involving exploration of the observable facts. Research Design As this research needs to investigate the challenges faced by the retailer Woolworths Company, it would need an understanding of the perspectives of the people who deal with those challenges and they would include the employees of the organization who would need to be interviewed. The research would take a mixed approach to research as the phenomenon that has already been studied earlier with some useful findings can create a foundation which can further be used for refining the primary investigation. The research would explore the past research as a secondary research and would analyse the patterns in the existing data to identify challenges, scope for improvement through lean approach and explore the solutions that have already been used to assess their effectiveness(TCS, 2015). Based on the analysis of the secondary data obtained in the literature review, a primary questionnaire would be developed for conducting a survey on the employees of the organization for the primary quantit ative investigation. Information Collection Process The research would be conducted in two parts including secondary qualitative data collection through study of past literatures and researches from journals, research reports, books, and other authentic documents followed by a primary research for which the data would be collected from the employees of the organization for understanding the challenges they face and how they deal with them(The University of Reading , 2001). Sampling and Sample Size A sample of 31 managers working for the Woolworths Company would be taken including those working at senior and mid senior level positions from different departments. These departments would include strategy department, service delivery, ecommerce sales, logistics, and merchandizing. One senior and two mid-senior level managers would be taken from each department for conducting the survey. The sample size has been decided on the basis of the organizational structure and its division into department such that representatives are chosen from each department. Data Analysis The research is a mixed research which includes secondary qualitative data in the literature review that would analyse using a narrative approach to identify possible themes or codes for the primary research on the retailing challenges, solutions and possible gaps that leave a scope for improvement. The analysis results would then be used for creating a primary survey questionnaire which would be used for the primary research which would include collection of the research data from 31 managers and analysis of the same. The survey data would include the qualitative data resulting from the open ended questions and the objective coded data that would result from the objectives questions asked to these respondents(WEF, 2017). A descriptive statistical analysis would be used to analyse the quantitative data which would deliver insights on the challenges faced by retailer and the solutions that have been proven to be useful. It would also include exploration of the gaps that still exist in the company and are required to be improved through the practice of lean(The University of Reading , 2001). The qualitative data resulting from the open ended question responses would be analysed using conceptual content analysis approach which would help identify the challenges that are currently faced by the managers working for the organization and have not been identified in the past researches. This data analysis is expected to deliver some new themes on challenges and opportunities for improvements in retailing. Data Collection Techniques The selected respondents would be given a questionnaire to fill online for the survey such that the data would be collected in the real time through a web based platform from where the data would be downloaded for the analysis. A primary survey questionnaire would be used for collecting the survey data that would identify if the challenges identified in the literature review are faced by the company management, if the discovered methods work to resolve challenges and explore if there were more challenges and scope for improvement. The data collected would be coded into SPSS file which would be further used for analysis. The questionnaire that would be used for the data collection would have both qualitative and quantitative data in the forms of objective questionnaire and the open ended questionnaire. While the objective section of the questionnaire would explore the views of the managers on the existing research findings to understand if they apply to the case of Woolworths, the ope n ended question would explore additional challenges and ways to tackle them that are used by the employees of the organization. Organisation, project budget and schedule Woolworths was founded by Percy Christmas in 1924 in Sydney and is operating today with over 3200 stores in Australia and New Zealand, managed by over 180,000 employees serving 28 million customers across the globe. Over the years, the company became the largest retailer with 31% share in the Australian market. Major brands of the retailer include Safeway supermarkets, Dick Smith electronics, BWS, Dan Murphys and Tandy. This research would explore the retail division of the organization to understand the strategic challenges that are faced by the organization today with an aim to identify opportunities for improvement in the organization. The project would be completed in 3 months which would include identification of objectives, literature study, questionnaire development, survey, data analysis and reporting. A budget of $1200 is required for the completion of the research. The research would follow the schedule given below: Research Activity Milestone Refining aims and objectives of the research 30 days Literature review 15 days Research methodology development 15 days Questionnaire development 10 days Submission of research proposal to Woolworths to get permission for survey 15 days Survey of managers in working in Woolworths 10 days Coding of research data into SPSS 20 days Statistical analysis of quantitative data 20 days Conceptual content analysis of qualitative data 15 days Data Interpretation 15 days Recommendations 10 days Report development 5 days Proofreading and editing 3 days Reference List Ambernathy, F. H., Dunlop, J. T., Hammond, J. H., Weil, D. (2000). Control your Inventory in the World of Lean retailing. Harvard Business Review. Bluschke, N. (2016). To E or not to Be Amazon's role in the retail industry. Module Vienna University. Diamond, E. (2004). Fashion Retailing: A Multi-Channel Approach. Prentice Hall Publications. Dydacomp. (2014). Drive Your Retail Sales Growth With Operational Efficiencies eBook. Dydacomp. Frei, F. X., Harker, P. T. (2000). Value Creation and Process Management: Evidece from Retail Banking. Wharton Financial Institutions Center. Gupta, S., Kumar, N. (2014). Retail Analytics: Game Changer for Customer Loyalty. Cognizant. IBM. (2010). Increasing Sales, Improving Efficiency, Working Smarter in Retail. IBM. IBSCDC. (2009). Indian Organised Retail: In Search of the Right Model. IBS CDC. KPMG. (2015). Indias e-commerce retail logistics growth story. CII. Motorola Solutions, Inc. (2013). IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY AND CUSTOMER SERVICE IN THE RETAIL STORE WITH AUTOMATED INVENTORY MANAGEMENT. Motorola Solutions, Inc. Nielsen . (2013). Continuous Innovations: The Key to Retail Success. The Nielsen Company. Oracle. (2015). Oracle Retail Markdown Optimization. Oracle. Stauss, B., Seidel, W. (2012). Complaint Management in Retailing. Springer. TCS. (2015). A Lean Six Sigma Approach to Improving Efficiency in Retail Store Operations. TCS. The University of Reading . (2001). Approaches to the Analysis of Survey Data . The University of Reading . WEF. (2017). Shaping the Future of Retail for Consumer Industries. World Economic Forum.